Tasting Notes - 2

Date 31 August 2020 Source of Cream
Batch No.  1324 Made by
Batch Expiry Season


Creamy Aroma

Cheesy Aroma

Green Grassy Aroma *Sweet (1) – Sour (10)



Yellowness *Pale (1) – Bright (10)




Your first taste?

Your first taste of an artisan cultured butter like Pepe Saya can be a shock.

This is not your bland, mass-produced butter!

Our butter is made from cream cultured with a natural lactobacillus culture – similar to those used to make yoghurt and some cheeses. So expect tastes and smells that remind you of cheese, yoghurt and sour cream. And a much deeper, richer, ‘butterier’ taste.



Water Activity
  • Water has the potential to support the growth of molds and yeast 
  • The necessary moisture requirement for most mold and yeast growth is above 0.75. 
  • The water activities of the Supermarket Homebrand Butter, Leading Unsalted Australian Butter, Leading Imported Butter and an Organic Butter ranged between 0.713 to 0.7445 
  • However there is still potential for some growth of microorganisms 
  • Pepe Saya has the highest water activity value, strongly supporting the growth of most types of molds and yeast 
  • All butter samples are not high enough to support the growth of bacteria, which usually requires approximately 0.86 and above 
  • The salted butter sample (Leading Imported Butter) had a lower water activity value compared to the unsalted butter samples 
  • Salted butter samples are more stable and has a longer shelf life 
  • Home churned butter (such as Pepe Saya) has a more marbled and softer texture, as with the lack of commercial/industrial equipment for home churning there is a less even distribution of water and size of water droplets and a less even distribution of salt 
  • High correlation between carotenoid level and the b axis with an R squared value of 0.9139, as seen in Figure 1.0 
  • Cow’s diet responsible for level of carotenoids in butter 
  • Grass fed cows have a notably higher level of carotenoids than grain fed cow’s 
  • Grass fed cow butter has a higher level of pigmentation resulting in a greater golden yellow colour 
  • Supermarket Homebrand Butter, with 100% grass fed cows produced the highest b value 
  • Leading Imported Butter, a European brand are grain fed for a greater portion of the year resulting in the lowest b value recorded 


  • Supermarket Homebrand Butter and Leading Imported Butter are characterised by a higher value of total dietary cholesterol than the other three. 
  • Dietary cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of GIT cancers. 
  • FAME data shows that a Homebrand butter expressed fatty acids which lead to the hardest composition. 
  • Pepe Saya presented the fatty acids which are related to a softer butter. 
  • High concentrations of saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid and stearic acid, the two most abundant fatty acids in butter (especially in Supermarket Homebrand Butter and Leading unsalted Australian Butter) increase its overall hardness. 
  • This correlates with the texture analysis conducted 
  • Pepe Saya fatty acid profile expressed the highest amount of Butyric acid, the compound that provides the cheesy aroma to dairy 
  • This can be associated with the Aroma and Sensory test graphs, showing that Pepe Saya had the strongest cheesy aroma. 



  • Consumption of dairy products with lower Atherogenic Index values decreases concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in blood plasma from humans in comparison to consumption of commercial dairy products. Because of the documented beneficial health effects, there is a potential niche market for dairy products with lower AI. 
  • The margarine samples had lower AI than did butter from low-AI cows but also had much higher concentrations of trans-oleic acids, which increase concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 
  • Milk fat with lower AI values develops an oxidized flavour, which is a potential disadvantage of low-AI dairy products. But most studies, including this study, could detect no differences in butter flavour between samples that differ in fatty acid saturation. 
  • The nutritional value of butter was also linearly improved by the proportion of fresh grass in the diet by halving the atherogenicity index. 



GCGC - Two Dimensional Gas Chromotrography 

Pepe Saya has a more complex flavour combination in comparison to other butter brands tested

  • Primary compositions of butter include fatty acids; lactones, methyl ketones, diacetyl and dimethyl sulfide and the chemical butyric acid contribute to most of the buttery flavour.
  • The major volatile compounds that represent the butter’s tested were benzaldehyde and acetophonone, which have an almond-like and pungent sensory profile, respectively.
  • Off-flavours such as rancid, pungent and stale are related to the light oxidation of butter postproduction 



  • The cream used in the manufacturing process affects aroma 
  • Cultured butter (Pepe Saya) scored highest in the olfactory test, this butter had the creamiest and cheesiest aroma 
  • Cultured butter with bacteria added to it will produce a more desirable and complex aroma 
  • Butter made with traditional cream will give a flatter aroma 
  • Production season, manufacturing process and storage condition also influence the aroma as seen in the GCGC data 
  • In the summer milk fat contains more liquid (soft fat) therefore butter tends to be more weak and leaky 
  • In the winter the milk fat contains more solid fat and tends to be harder, brittle and ultimately less spreadable 



  •  80% of the variability of butter texture is influenced by the composition of butter. 
  • The composition of the butter can be affected by the concentration of phospholipids, the type of fatty acids, and the size of the fat globule. 
  • Composition of butter can vary depending on cow’s diet – grass fed or grain fed. 
  • An increase in unsaturated fatty acids in the diet positively relates to the spreadability and softness of the butter. 
  • However high levels of UFA can be associated with flavour defects due to oxidation. 
  • Fresh grass improves the rheological and nutritional properties of butter. 
  • Other minor influences on the composition of butter is genotype, lactation stage and the butter manufacturing process 
  • The graph shows hardness and adhesiveness of the butter. 
  • Supermarket Homebrand Butter and Leading Unsalted Australian Butter are seen to be the hardest, while Pepe Saya was the softest of the tested butters. 
  • This was also similar in the adhesives, where Supermarket Homebrand Butter and Leading Unsalted Australian Butter were the most adhesive and Pepe Saya being the least 



It was hypothesised that Pepe Saya will have remarkably different results as it was initially known that it was churned and cultured. The four butters (Organic, Leading Unsalted Australian Butter, Leading Imported Butter and Supermarket Homebrand Butter) should express similar results as they are all manufactured and processed in a similar way. The Leading Imported Danish butter was the only butter where the cows were grain fed instead of grass fed (due to the European winter) Future experiments could include removing the variables. These experiments should use only similar variables, such as to use all salted hand churned butters and thus increasing overall credibility of the experiments. It can be hypothesised for this research that the when comparing a single variable the results will be more similar. 




There are numerous factors that affect the properties of butter. These range from the process of making butter; whether its hand churned or mechanically churned affects the water profile of the butter. The diet of the cow affects the texture, aroma, colour and the overall chemical composition of the milk used to make the butter. Different fatty acids are present depending on diet of the cow, whether its grain or grass fed. The hardness is also affected by the varying fatty acid composition, the higher the saturated fat content, the harder the butter is. 

All data shows that Pepe Saya, the handcrafted boutique butter has the greatest variation in all properties compared to the brands you can buy in the supermarket.